Saturday, November 16, 2019
Egocentricity of Pechorin vs Jason Essay In this essay I will compare the egocentricity of the characters of Pechorin from the Russian novel, A Hero of Our Time by Lermontov, and Jason from the Greek Tragedy Medea, written by Euripides. I have selected the topic of egocentricity or self-absorption for it is prevalent in both works in respect to Pechorin and Jason where they show little if any regard for anyone but themselves throughout the works. However the time differences and social and cultural conditions of the time and place the works were written must be taken into consideration. I feel that the theme of complete selfishness and the consequences that follow is strongest in respect to Jason and Pechorin and I will compare and provide evidence for such an argument in both works. I will start by analysing Jasons utterly selfish behaviour throughout the Ancient Greek play Medea, written by Euripides. Jason is a completely egocentric character but he doesnt have as much depth or complexity as Pechorin in A Hero of Our Time which is partly due to when this play was written in ancient Greece. Society was very different people were devouted Pagans and lived in a world of superstition. Also literature was no way near as advanced however Medea still contains the fundamentals such as psychology. Jason is motivated solely by self-interest, his only motivation to court Medea in the play is the fact that she has mystical powers to get him what he wants; the Golden Fleece, for which he will get a generous reward in return. Jason even allows Medea to kill her own brother out of lust and be banished from her homeland forever by her father as a consequence. Unfortunately Jason is to self-involved to even comprehend how his Actions would affect Medea and their children. Again we see further evidence of Jasons egocentricity when he divorces Medea and abandons his kids for Glauce, princess of Corinth. He doesnt consider the affect on Medea and their children for he is blinded by his selfishness, he doesnt even mind that they are going to get banished as long as he increases his political and social status. His only defence is that he will one day be king and they will inherit the kingdom, which has no validity for he has already betrayed her trust and showed no sign of guilt and is just trying to justify himself. Even the nurse says that his marriage is for social status not love, Jason has betrayed his own sons, and my mistress, for royal bed.i Unfortunately we dont get to see Jasons interaction with friends in this play, which I would guess to be very short sighted and shallow as usual. Jason seems to have an extreme lack of morals when it comes to his own actions such as abandoning his wife and kids simply for political gain. Also his motivation for this immoral action was money and political power not love for Glauce, which is immoral. The final similarity between the two characters is regret. Jason ends up in deep regret for his action for the outcome is the death of his new wife Glauce and his children as well as his almost social castration as a result. He learns that egocentricity leads to self-destruction for you lose sight of other peoples feeling and dont take them into consideration. Where Jasons Character differs from Pechorin is in respect to his emotion place in the work and his inability to except his faults. Jasons only real sign of emotion throughout the play is the within respect to the murder of his children. What? Killed my sons? That word kills me.ii This shows the pain he must have felt inside with this loss. Jason also seems to have an inability to admit his faults. He is blinded by his self-involvement, which is evidence of insecurity for living in your own world protects your from reality. Finally I feel that Jasons role in the play is more of a villain, which could be because the play is mainly Medeas view. A template of how not to get caught up in shallow insecurities, where as Pechorin in A Hero of Our Time is portrayed as more of a modern Hero where he has faults which make him easier to relate to and a much more believable character. Pechorin is also a portrayed with an immoral and selfish attitude in the Novel, A Hero of Our time. Yet Pechorin is given a lot more human characteristics and is described in much more detail with points probing on the physiological aspects even though its just pre-Freud. It was written 2332 years after Medea from a different culture and is a much larger work therefore is bound to be different in style. Pechorin is definitely as selfish as Jason is, if not more so. He uses all his so-called romantic relationships to gain control and domination over the hearts of young women. Firstly with Bela he trades her for a Horse he stole. How immoral is firstly stealing and then trading a women as an object? Because of this her father is killed and her brother rides off so shes left with literally nothing. He soon got bored of her and barely felt anythin at her death. Later on in his relationship with Princess Mary he is similarly selfish. He wants Princess Mary for shes in high demand as wee as a challenge and he feels the need to win her, in part of this was due to his old friend Grusnitski who also desired Mary. Pechorin saw this as a challenge and didnt even consider the effect it would have on Mary and Grusninski and didnt really care for hes caught up in his own world. He even sets out to destroy Grusnitskis reputation and ends up killing him. He is also very immoral in respect to the treatment of friends such as Maxim Maxyvich. He is disrespectful towards Maxim for he feels that he is now old and useless to him, which is shown at their unexpected reunion where Pechorin is very selfish and immoral. Pechorin also experiences regret like Jason in Medea, but his regret builds up and turns into bitterness. Passions are merely ideas in their initial stage. They are the property of youth, and anyone who expects to feel their thrill throughout life is a fool.iii Pechorin has not been able to find true passion or love throughout his life. He has quickly got bored of every relationship he has been in and is bitter to the fact that true love has never found him. Evidence that he could once feel emotion would lie in when he felt joy in the memory of the sulphur springs. Now this has forced him to become callus and use everyone to hide from his empty heart. However Pechorin does admit he has faults, Ambition has been crushed in me by circumstances, but it comes out in another way, for ambition is nothing more than a lust for power and my chief delight is to dominate those around me.iv But doesnt justify them or even try to change. I believe his self-analysis is shallow and this ties in to his duality as a person, which prevents him from expressing emotion. For a long time now Ive lived by intellect, not feeling. I weigh and analyse my emotions and actions with close interest, but complete detachment. There are two men within me one lives in the full sense if the word and the other reflects and judges him.v Finally I feel that Pechorin is portrayed more as the new Hero of our Time.vi Who isnt old fashioned but strong and unconventional with human faults that we can relate to therefore hes definitely the protagonist of the novel and an affective chara cter.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
All men should be treated as equal. However, some people think they are superior to the others. For almost fifty years, South Africans were segregated by apartheid, a system that separated South Africans by their skin colors. The purpose behind this system was to separate the colored people from the whites in favor of white minority to have power over the black majority. Many people had to move out of their homes in designated Ã¢â¬Å"WhiteÃ¢â¬ areas even though they already settled in the areas before the system was established. This system officially came to end in mid 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s when Nelson Mandela came to power. However, the remnants of apartheid still exist in South Africa. Thus I decided to investigate the causes of segregation in South Africa. Apartheid started in when the Group Areas Act was introduced in 1950. This law drove the black people from the designated Ã¢â¬Å"WhiteÃ¢â¬ areas in order to attain more perfect segregation. According to Outcast Cape Town by John Western it stated, Ã¢â¬Å"up to 1 in 10 Capetonians (nearly all mixed-race Ã¢â¬Å"ColouredsÃ¢â¬ ) were ejected from their homes, in order to achieve a more perfect segregationÃ¢â¬ (Western, 1981,1996). Consequently, so many people lost their homes where they lived for their whole lifetime and had to move out to the outskirts of the cities. The government officials claimed that the law was to prevent any racial conflicts. Western stated, Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦ segregation is in the interest of all, is enshrined in the Ã¢â¬Å"friction theoryÃ¢â¬ ¦ the belief is simply that any contact between the races inevitably produces conflictÃ¢â¬ (Western, 1981, 1996). ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a pretty good allegation for introducing the law by saying that Ã¢â¬Å"we want peace amo ng every peopleÃ¢â¬ . However, in truth, the law only benefited the white minority. The g... ...riority." New York Times, March 23, 2012. https://blackboard.syr.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-3178578-dt-content-rid-8098063_1/courses/33750.1142/Polgreen 2012.pdf (accessed March 5, 2014). Teppo, A, and M Houssay-Holzschuch. "Revolution for Liberalism." Canadian Review African Studies. (2013). https://blackboard.syr.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-3178564-dt-content-rid-8098064_1/courses/33750.1142/Teppo and Houssay-Holzschuch 2013.pdf (accessed March 4, 2014). Tony, Samara. "Cape Town After Apartheid Crime And Governance in the Divided City." (2011). https://blackboard.syr.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-3178520-dt-content-rid-8098076_1/courses/33750.1142/Samara 2011.pdf (accessed March 5, 2014). Western, John. "Outcast Cape Town." (1981, 1996). https://blackboard.syr.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-3178075-dt-content-rid-8094165_1/courses/33750.1142/Western_excerpts.pdf (accessed March 5, 2014).
Monday, November 11, 2019
Meaghan OÃ¢â¬â¢Hare Professor Haytham Mahfoud LIBS-3003-02 September 22, 2013 A Critique of Ã¢â¬Å"Who Needs College?Ã¢â¬ In her essay Ã¢â¬Å"Who Needs College?Ã¢â¬ Linda Lee addresses the issue of whether or not a college education is necessary in order to have a successful life. Lee believes that too much importance is placed on going away to school and getting a degree when it is very possible to find a job and learn valuable life lessons without it. While many would strongly oppose her position on this topic, it has been proven time and time again by numerous individuals that a bright future is well within reach without having to obtain a degree. Going to college is considered to be one of the most important parts of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s adult life. Lee focuses on this unnecessary pedestal that the college experience is put on. Kids treat it as an excuse to party and do not place the same level of importance on it as their parents do. Lee had this realization with her own son when she thought about how she was Ã¢â¬Å"paying $1,000 a week for this pleasure cruiseÃ¢â¬ (52). This lead her to pull her son out of school until he was ready to go back and be serious or find a job to occupy his time more efficiently. Her son went on to have many different jobs. They were not the most glamorous, but taught him independence and how to be responsible with his own money. Lee argues that this life path got her son to a fulfilling place where he was enjoying what he was doing and had found a good job where a promotion was in his near future (2). This end result is typically why students go through college in the first place. Throughout the essay, Lee uses multiple statistics in order to back up her position. This is useful because it helps the reader understand that the point being made is a valid one. Lee goes on to make references to people ranging from her hair colorist all the way to Bill Gates to prove that a degree is not necessary to go places in life (52). It is helpful that she also has the advantage of being able to say her son benefited from this way of living. This broadens the audience immensely because the varying ageÃ groups can relate to the different examples and statistics used throughout. Lee makes a very refreshing point and is correct when asking the question of why so many people feel it is necessary to go to college. It is always assumed that after graduating high school, college is the only acceptable step a young person should be taking. These are very high expectations that put a lot of pressure on the ones who might not be ready yet. It is much more practical to focus on what you are passionate about first and then going back to school instead of the other way around. Lee states that Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦most kids today view college as a way to get a good jobÃ¢â¬ (52). This only sets graduates up for disaster when they go out into the real world and find out that they cannot find a job as easily as they thought they would. Making it seem like getting a degree is the only way to get places in life is entirely the wrong impression to be giving. Furthermore, while the notion of bypassing a college education is unheard of for most people, it is very possible to be successful without one. Lee thoroughly believes that going to college should not have to be expected from everyone. Referencing the experience she went through with her own son and how he left school opened her eyes and lead her to ask the title question of Ã¢â¬Å"Who Needs College?Ã¢â¬ Earning a degree may be essential for those who wish to pursue a career in medicine or law, but is not always helpful to those who do not have similar goals. Multiple statistics are used throughout in order to validate this. Lee opens the door for many who might not have thought skipping out on college at first or altogether was an option. It is more then possible to learn the same important lessons and find a good career and now, thanks to Lee, awareness can be raised. Works Cited Lee, Linda. Ã¢â¬Å"Who Needs College?Ã¢â¬ Perspectives on Contemporary Issues: Readings Across the Disciplines. 4th ed. Ed. Katherine Anne Ackley, Boston: Wadsworth/ Gengage Learning, 2005. 51-52. Print.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Katelyn Poremski 3-8-13 English 100 Final Draft Softball is not just a Sport Softball is not just a sport to me. Sports can be used to learn life lessons in ways that they help shape attitude, portray passion, develop personality, and teach companionship. Ã¢â¬Å"When life throws you a curve ballÃ¢â¬ means that when life gives you obstacles to overcome. This is a quote relating to life incorporating baseball or softball in to it, using Ã¢â¬Å"curve ballÃ¢â¬ as a synonym for obstacles. Softball, along with other sports, is a great way to learn life lessons and is not just a sport.A sport, such as softball, is something that many people can benefit from. All ages, starting at 5 can enjoy the game of softball. We, as humans, benefit from learning, enjoying each othersÃ¢â¬â¢ company, and overcoming and making progress in the game. These concepts can also be related to everyday life because we do each of these things every day. As people, we also need an outlet for our emotions and hardships that we face; softball can help us with this. Instead of taking out anger on another person, we can take our anger out on slamming the pitch and making a home run out of it.If you look at this from a more meaningful prospective, you can take your anger in life and always come out on top if you handle each situation in a positive and professional way. Softball also teaches people to have passion. I give a lot of recognition to the sport for teaching me to have passion not just in the game, but in life. Softball gave me something to be passionate about and also taught me to continue being passionate about other things such as my school work, and being successful.If I did not have softball in my life, I do not even know where I would be today because it was the first thing that I was passionate about. Since I was passionate about softball for all my life, it has given me great opportunities. The best opportunity it has given me is being able to go to a college that I love an d also being able to play softball. If I wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t as determined and passionate about softball I would have not gotten the opportunity to play at Point Park University. Being an athlete of softball has taught me so much in life. Having a great attitude while laying a sport was not always easy; however, I knew that if I did not have a good attitude I would not do well. This idea, also, carried over to everyday life. If I did not have a good attitude when I woke up in the morning was like if I did not have a good attitude going up to the plate when I was up to bat. I knew I would fail if I did not have this positive attitude. Softball also can teach people to express themselves. I would not be the person I am today if I did not have softball to help shape the person I am. It taught me to communicate as a teammate and be respectful to the other team.I also interpreted this in to my everyday life. If I did not communicate on the field, or if I did not communicate with my friends I w ould not have successful relationships with people. Also, if I did not respect people, people would not show any respect for me. In conclusion, softball has not only helped me in life with teaching lessons and shaping me as a person, but it has helped a lot of other people as well. Softball, along with other sports, is an exceptional outlet for dealing with emotions and hardships, let alone also teaching great life lessons.
Thursday, November 7, 2019
The Need for Achievement, Power and Affiliation Essay Example The Need for Achievement, Power and Affiliation Essay The Need for Achievement, Power and Affiliation Essay Management is one of the primary functions of administrative sections especially that of the business organizations. Why is this so? Primarily because of the fact that the major function of this particular sector in business establishment is to manage the way by which the business enterprise deal with the employees which it gets its company strength from. Being able to make amends with the way the management deals with the organizationÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce is one way by which the business entity is ensured with the success that it aims to achieve in the future. (Greenwood, 2005, 12) This is the primary reason why management could not passively deal with the issues that concern the employees especially when dealing with the retail practices of business (Leat, 2001, 21). In this paper, the concepts and principles of management and its capability to handle the challenge of motivating people shall be introduced, thus discussed, through the statements that relate management with ht personal and organizational development of the employees within the company. The Need for Achievement, Power and Affiliation There are different elements that particularly lead people to performing well in job. Whatever those elements are, they all support the ways by which employees become better acquainted with their goals of gaining several achievements, ample power or authority over others and their need of being affiliated with the organization as it is. The said factors shall be discussed as follows: (A) The factor of fear Fear, especially at the workplace could give both positive and negative results to the employees. In a positive way, it could be used as a wake up call to the less-motivated ones to improve their performance in completing their own tasks. Fear in many ways could be used to remind the employees of their responsibilities towards their companies which may have been lost because of long time routinary work. In some ways, fear could also be utilized as a motivating factor for employees to acknowledge the authority of other employees in the company whereas they are further encouraged to do their best to find favor in the eyes of their employers and senior co-workers. On the other hand, fear, if not utilized well, may case an employee to loose his enthusiasm towards the job. As for example, if an employee is advised to improve his performance by an employer with an angry voice, the real idea behind the advice of helping the employee gain progress for himself may be set aside and fear may cause the employee to loose interest and worse, he could even decide to quit his job. (B) The Factor of Learning Learning spurs up further individual improvement. When a person s bale to learn something new from his job, he is further inspired to work better to learn even more. This is the reason why many business consultants advice that one key to employee-management relationship success is the capability of the management to provide shifting responsibilities to the employees whereas they are able to learn new things every now and then and thus gain a certain level of self-satisfaction. In this regard, there are four main ways by which learning contributes to an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s working performance. The said ways are s follows: Learning as a way of human motivation: As earlier pointed out, learning is a tool which helps motivate a personÃ¢â¬â¢s eagerness to continue performing well at his given tasks especially when he is able to gain added knowledge or skill from what he does. In other words, the tasks he performs are then used to become links to his self-improvement as an individual and as an employee as well. Learning as a way to reduce stress: When a person learns from his job, he is able to focus more on the benefits that he is able to gain from performing well in his duties than he is able to focus on the stress that his job brings him. Thus, through this, his focus on making a good impression to his employers through the outcome of his job is well enhanced and is not dimmed by self-pity and stress.
Tuesday, November 5, 2019
Leadership in Nursing Mahoney (2001) points out the importance of developing future leaders among nurses. Leadership qualities are often required in nursesÃ¢â¬â¢ work, especially when they treat people who work in the top-management sector. According to Curtis, DeVries, and Sheerin (2011), everyone who is responsible for assistance, and everyone who is considered an authority (for example, medics who treat patients) is a leader. Leaders among nurses are involved in development of treatment methods; they improve treatment and provide new approaches (Cook, 2001). Along with this, we consider leadership not a specific skill or a group of skills, but an example of proper behavior (Cook, 2001). Leadership also includes an example of perfect performance. Main goal of every leader is not to just control others, but to organize and plan all actions of other employees, as well as to create all necessary conditions for them to benefit from work (Jooste, 2004). Many experts defined leadership in different ways, but some features are common for a lot of different definitions. Most authors agree that leadership includes influence; it develops within groups, it depends on a particular goal, and it is present on every level (Faugier Woolnough, 2002). There are a few different types of leadership. For example, there is an autocratic type of leadership that excludes any participation in decision-making (Curtis, DeVries, and Sheering, 2011). At the same time, bureaucratic type of leadership implies strict adherence to established system of rules and regulations. Another type of leadership allows other employees to search for a best decision, considering different solutions, and making employees participate in planning and in success of the overall work (Fradd, 2004). Another type of leadership is called laissez-faire leadership, and it gives employees almost total freedom in decision-making and goal setting. This type is described by Faugier Woo lnough (2002) as the most risky one. The most flexible type of leadership is situational leadership, where a leader switches among different styles, depending on a situation and a particular goal. We considered the basis of a leadership theory and common types of leadership. Moiden (2002) states that theory is used to describe reality, while various types of leadership are different ways to implement such a theory. Every organization has to consider different approaches and choose a style that corresponds to particular goals. Choosing a necessary style, an organization must look for a best performance in various conditions. Here the point is to provide highest efficiency in any circumstances (Moiden, 2002). We also have to highlight the key difference between leadership and management. Leaders provide motivation, proper vision, and inspiration, while managers provide control and planning (Faugier Woolnough, 2002). Transformational Leadership VS Transactional Leadership According to Outhwaite (2003), transactional type of leadership requires certain skills which can improve everyday routine and increase its efficiency. The main goal of transformational leadership is to ensure that all members of team cooperate and benefit from innovations. Good leader is able to assess everyoneÃ¢â¬â¢s potential and interests of any particular employee, sorting tasks and involving members of a team depending on their individual skills. In turn, such an approach helps the leader develop his or her leadership abilities, which creates necessary environment for the further development of their careers. According to Outhwaite (2003), leaders must be able to determine obstacles and possible conflicts, in order to solve any problems at the very beginning. Leader should be close to the team, participating in the process, and staying in touch with all members of the team. When a leader is an important part of the team, he or she serves as an example, and is able to estimate all difficulties, goals, and perspectives. Thus, a real leader must be responsible and qualified. While the goal of transactional leaders is to provide effective everyday work, transformational leaders must help employees unleash and develop their full potential. This type of leader should create the necessary direction and motivate everyone to focus on necessary tasks. According to Cook (2001), transformational leader must influence others, giving them understanding of most important goals. Faugier Woolnough (2002) point out the importance of articulating and developing necessary vision among different members of a team. While transactional leaders should provide efficient management, transformational leaders, must be able to increase possibilities of employees, and so provide better conditions for the entire project. De Geest et al. (2003) describe feature of transformational management on the example of Magnet hospitals. They illustrate how development of leadership positions improved the level of treatment among employees, as well as patients. These hospitals provided a number of innovations, creating the atmosphere of trust, providing highest ethical standards, and estimating all possibilities of development in future (De Geest et al., 2003). Authors note that leadership skills are mostly important today, when directions of health care change all the time, due to technological innovations and increase in demand among patients. Authors state that such a type of leadership provides much higher level of satisfaction among employees, therefore creating necessary motivation and increasing performance. In turn, such changes provide higher level of satisfaction among patients. According to De Geest et al. (2003), leaders have to implement democratic, efficient, and supportive methods, to provide non- stop development, and guarantee benefits for both patients and employees. Transformational leadership considers interpersonal relations between the leader and other employees, which is why we must mention empowerment (Hyett, 2003). Empowerment gives nurses confidence and will to act efficiently in any circumstances. Implementing a team approach, leaders must be able to create strict boundaries and formulate clear goals. The team must be supported on every stage of the process. At the same time, Welford (2002) notes that a nurse manager must be able to create a balance between the use of power and democratic methods, in order to avoid abuse of power. Hyett (2003) focuses on the atmosphere of trust and respect, defining it as the key feature of transformational leadership. Clinical Governance VS Shared Governance Generally, clinical governance is a relatively new approach, which implies the National Health ServiceÃ¢â¬â¢s control over the quality of service, as well as provides new standards of treatment. Moiden (2002) writes about the creation of necessary environment to improve clinical service. Modern standards of UK government imply new types of leadership that are able to support diversity among employees, building a strong community at the same time. Scott and Caress (2005) note that development of leadership approaches is necessary for professional development of staff. Shared governance is one of methods used to realize such a goal (Hyett, 2003). First of all, this method implies empowerment of all staff, making them able to work on common goals and participate in decision making process. Rycroft et al. (2004) call it multi-professional care. Scott and Caress (2005) note that this approach helps to decentralize management, motivating staff to work together, and increasing responsibil ities. This method provides much better results than a classical system of hierarchy. It increases motivation and satisfaction of staff, which makes employees want to make significant contribution, using their creativity and improving their most useful skills. Skills and Knowledge of a Nurse Leader Obviously, leaders must have necessary knowledge of management. They have to create proper atmosphere within a team, as well as understand necessary details about finances and economics. Mahoney (2001) notes that leaders must also have knowledge of evidence-based outcomes. However, according to Mahoney (2001), this list of skills is not complete, since every nurse leader also must be competent, and creative. Leaders must easily collaborate with other workers and stay up to date about all changes in standards of treatment. Not only have they to be aware of the latest medical trends, but also to implement these standards and make sure that they are applied efficiently. Moiden (2003) notes that leaders must be able to understand needs of staff, creating necessary conditions for work, in order to increase productivity. Strong leadership is based on three main things, such as influence, authority, and power (Jooste, 2004). Taking into account modern tendencies in management, we can conclude that a leader must use influence more, trying to use less power. A leader must be able to find common ground in every situation, negotiating with staff, motivating and persuading them. Author highlights three necessary methods that help improve communication between workers and a leader, such as instructions, caring relationships, and modelling, which is supporting a point with examples. De Geest et al. (2004) sorts necessary skills, and creates a list of five necessary practices for leaders, including modelling, inspiring, motivating to act in a certain way, challenging, and encouraging. A leader must be able to correctly assess contributions, creating the atmosphere of competition among employees, therefore encouraging them and increasing performance. Mahoney (2001) states that such an approach helps the leader to focus not only on leadership issues, but on the whole team as well. Practice Settings Hyett (2003) notes that most health visitors have no necessary mechanisms of self-control, which could help them make decisions and take them out of a self-led environment. In such conditions, nurses donÃ¢â¬â¢t initiate changes, since such initiatives donÃ¢â¬â¢t find support. As a result, most active nurses lose their confidence and donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel able to support their colleagues. Fradd (2004) states that such problems are the most important issue in a context of motivation, noting that the lack of motivation directly affects the quality of medical care. Often managers donÃ¢â¬â¢t pay necessary attention to self-esteem of staff, focusing only on a range of medical services, and so increasing dependence, and decreasing motivation. Hyett (2003) states that such conditions may be the reason for workers to leave their job, or even change their line of work. Every time when a nurse leaves a position, an organization faces the need to find new employee, and so spend extra time on t raining. In turn, it means additional costs on training and recruitment. According to statistics based on focus groups, most nurses describe leaders as enthusiasts, who can easily show them necessary direction, inspire them, and support them with necessary advice. Rycroft-Malone et al. (2004) claims that nurses donÃ¢â¬â¢t want a leader who will speak from the position of power; a real leader must have enough knowledge, and be able to collaborate with others, working on the same goals, managing them, and demonstrating his or her developed skills. Social Context Nurse leaders participate in every stage of work, providing effective management. We can see how leadership changed through time, moving towards smart management, and excluding the role of overpowering. According to Jooste (2004), now difference between lower, middle, and top management slowly disappears, because leaders of each level are no more limited in their tasks. Now each leader must be flexible and able to act in unexpected situations. This fact leads to wider responsibilities, and so to new standards of health care. Large et al. (2005) consider a leadership program of the Royal College of Nursing. This program of political leadership includes several steps. First of all, leaders should be able to estimate the most important issues, creating a proposal for change. They must involve more participants in discussion, talking to both supporters and opponents of each project. Leaders must build communication and deliver effective messages, creating healthy environment for collaboration between different parts of an organization. Education Cook (2001) points out the importance of investment in education. We must teach nurses how to be a leader. Cook insists on including leadership into the basic nursing curricula, also noting that such a type of education must be available not only during training, but also during their careers. Such an approach is wide, and we can consider its benefits on the example of evidence evaluation. Nurses must be able to analyze evidences and make decisions based on the strongest evidence. To make it possible, we need to provide nurses with necessary knowledge, as well as to train them. They must be able to adapt to unexpected circumstances, and make decisions fast and effectively. According to Moiden (2002), we must provide nurses with understanding of possible situations, and with necessary knowledge, so they could find solutions for unexpected issues. To support the use of transformational leadership, NHS created the Leading an Empowered Organization. They hope that such incentives will help nurses develop and realize their authority and responsibility. This program defines the goal as an ability to take risks, solve unexpected problems, and develop autonomy. Along with the Leading an Empowered Organization, another program was created to help nurses discover their leadership qualities. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s the RCN Clinical Leaders Program (Faugier Woolnough, 2002). New Challenges and Opportunities Jooste (2004) states that health care constantly produces new challenges and changes the environment for nurses. They must be able to react to unexpected events immediately, take the initiative and make important decisions. This all is impossible with the old hierarchic approach to leadership. New approaches make it possible to introduce new methods of motivation, creating necessary conditions for talking, listening, and encouraging. Hyett (2003) describes leadership as an ability to develop new methods and introduce new systems, in order to provide understanding of a desired vision. Now we are saying that everyone can be a leader, since all a future leader needs is a number of certain skills and practices. First of all, nurse leaders must be flexible, confident, and have necessary knowledge (Hyett, 2003). Empowering Patients Fradd (2004) states that only those organizations that have good leaders are able to satisfy patients. Most patients assess medical care depending on the nurseÃ¢â¬â¢s behavior, so this profession is one of the most important medical professions in the context of individual trust. A patient can be more or less involved in care, and in this case everything depends on the nurse. Many patients understand features of their disease, or at least want to be as informed about it, as possible. Thus, patients must be involved in discussions, getting necessary information about features of their treatment. Patients need to talk to nurses, and nurses have to be able to argue with patients, as well as to reassure them, and give them necessary information in an understandable way. According to Outhwaite (2003), nurses must be able to protect interests of the patient, in case if a doctor places his own opinion above patientÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion. According to Welford (2002), transformational leadership is a method that allows followers participate in important process along with a leader. This method also provides a flexible structure of management, which helps both the leader and followers adapt to fast changes. Mahoney (2001) states that getting rid of hierarchical structures, organizations are able to form strong teams, where all experts and professions collaborate, and so increase performance of the entire organization. As a result, both patients and nurses are satisfied, and this result helps add value for customers and for staff as well. This is an example of an essay. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t present it as your own work, since it wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t pass a plagiarism check. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re looking for qualitative and affordable college papers, just contact us now!
Saturday, November 2, 2019
Business Forms Available Under UK Law - Essay Example Characteristics Ã¢â¬ ¢ The sole trader possesses all the assets of the business. Ã¢â¬ ¢ He or she is directly liable to any debts incurred by the business. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The business is easy to dissolve since no formalities or paper works are required. Examples of some of the most known sole trader business include the Donald Trump organization, owned and managed by Donald trump who is also the founder of Trump entertainment Resorts. b) Company This is an association of individuals united by a common objective and normally come together with the intention of achieving specific goals. Companies are in two major categories; private and public. The difference between these two is that whereas public companies have the right to sell their shares to the public, private companies do not and neither do they trade their shares in stock exchange (Liu Post, 2014). Characteristics of public companies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have the right to sell shares to the public. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Can trade shares in the stock exchange. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have a limited liability status. Characteristics of private companies Ã¢â¬ ¢ Do not trade shares in stock exchange. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Only requires a maximum of fifty members. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Normally run and owned by family members and relatives Examples of public companies include Microsoft and IBM while private companies comprise of Cargill and Publix. This is a single business whereby two or more persons share ownership (BIS, 2013, p. 3). In this business, it is a requirement that each member participates in the contribution of all aspects such as capital, skills and labor. Partnerships are in three categories; Joint ventures, General and limited partnerships.